Ultra Vires: McNally and Paynter, BC Supreme Court Justice Hardwick

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Citation: Paynter v. School District No. 61,

2022 BCSC 1671

Date: 2022 09 23
Docket: S220689
Registry: Victoria
In the Matter of the Judicial Review Procedures Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 241

and the School Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 412

Between:

Petitioner Robert Paynter

And
The Board of Education of School District No. 61 (Greater Victoria)
Respondent

– and –

Docket: S220692
Registry: Victoria

Between:

Petitioner Diane McNally

And
The Board of Education of School District No. 61 (Greater Victoria)
Respondent

Before: The Honourable Madam Justice Hardwick

Reasons for Judgment

Counsel for the Petitioner R. Paynter: N. Vaartnou
Counsel for the Petitioner D. McNally: E.W. Pedersen

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 2
Counsel for the Respondent: R. Sieg
A. Owen, Articling Student
Place and Dates of Trial/Hearing: Kelowna, B.C.
May 4–6, 2022
Victoria, B.C.
September 23, 2022

Place and Date of Judgment:

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 3

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW 4
RELIEF SOUGHT IN THE PETITIONS 5
BACKGROUND FACTS GENERALLY 6
BACKGROUND FACTS SPECIFIC TO MCNALLY 12
BACKGROUND FACTS SPECIFIC TO PAYNTER 14
ISSUES TO BE DETERMINED 15
POSITIONS OF THE PARTIES ON THE ISSUES TO BE DETERMINED 16
PRELIMINARY ISSUE – APPLICATION TO STRIKE PORTIONS OF
PETITIONERS’ AFFIDAVITS 17
The Impugned Portions of the Petitioners’ Affidavits 17
An Overview of the Law Regarding Striking Portions of Affidavits 18
Application of the Law to the Petitioners’ Affidavits 20
STANDING 23
STANDARD OF REVIEW 24
THE GOVERNING LEGISLATION 26
IMPLIED AUTHORITY TO SUSPEND OR SANCTION TRUSTEES 28
Analogous Caselaw 31
ANALYSIS REGARDING JURISDICTION AND IMPLIED AUTHORITY 37
ANALYSIS REASONABLENESS AND PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS 40
CONCLUSION ON THE APPROPRIATE REMEDY 40
SUMMARY OF SUBSTANTIVE ORDERS 40
COSTS 40
SCHEDULE I 42
Interpretation Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 238 42
Judicial Review Procedure Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 241 42
School Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 412 42
Workers Compensation Act, R.S.B.C. 2019, c. 1 48

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 4
Introduction and Overview
[1] These are my reasons for judgment in respect of two petitions for judicial
review (the “Petitions”) that were argued before me on May 4, 5 and 6, 2022.
[2] Both Petitions were filed on February 28, 2022 and arise out of generally the
same fact pattern, although there are some facts which distinguish the two petitions
as I will address specifically in the individualized background section of these
reasons for judgment.
[3] The primary focus of the Petitions is whether the respondent, the Board of
Education of School District No. 61 (Greater Victoria) (the “Board”) has the authority
to suspend a trustee for the remainder of their elected term in office. The position of
the petitioners, as I will detail below, can be broadly summarized as follows:
(a) There is no express or implied statutory authority for the Board to suspend
a trustee under the School Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 412 [School Act],
particularly where doing so amounts to what the petitioners assert is
effectively removing an elected trustee from office. As such, any
suspension resolution purporting to do so is ultra vires;
(b) In the alternative, if the Board does have the authority to suspend a
trustee, the Board’s decision to do so, in this factual matrix, was
unreasonable; and
(c) To the extent that the Board relied on events other than the findings set
out in the reports made by the investigator retained by the Board to
investigate the complaints that ultimately led to the impugned resolutions,
the Board breached its duty of procedural fairness owed to the petitioners.
[4] The Board opposes the Petitions and takes the position that the Board clearly
had the jurisdiction to make the impugned resolutions. The Board does acknowledge
that this is a novel issue such that there is no case authority directly on point as to
whether the Board had the necessary implied authority pursuant to the School Act.

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 5
[5] The Board further asserts that the impugned resolutions were reasonable and
were made following a procedurally fair process.
Relief Sought in the Petitions
[6] The petition to the court filed on February 28, 2022 on behalf of the petitioner,
Diane McNally (“McNally”), seeks the following relief:
1. A declaration that the resolution of the Board of Education of School
District No. 61 (Greater Victoria) (the “Board”) dated February 8, 2022
(the “Resolution”) is ultra vires the Board and is invalid to the extent
that it purports to suspend Diane McNally from participation in and
receiving materials regarding all meetings of the Board for the
remainder of her term as a school trustee.
In the alternative, a declaration that the Board’s decision to suspend
Diane McNally from participation in and receiving materials regarding
all meetings of the Board for the remainder of his term as a school
trustee is unreasonable.
In the further alternative, a declaration that the Board breached its
duty of procedural fairness owed to Diane McNally in passing the
Resolution.
An order setting aside the second paragraph of the Resolution, which
imposes the sanction of suspension.
An order pursuant to section 17 of the Judicial Review Procedure Act,
R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 241 (the “JRPA”), directing the Board to produce
and file the record before it when making the Resolution, including all
reports provided by the Investigator.
An order for costs of this proceeding.
Such other relief as this Court may determine appropriate.
2.

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.
[7] The petition to the court filed on February 28, 2022 on behalf of the petitioner,
Robert Paynter (“Paynter”), seeks the following similar, but not identical, relief:
1. A declaration that the resolution of the Board of Education of School
District No. 61 (Greater Victoria) (the “Board”) dated February 8, 2022
(the “Resolution”) is ultra vires the Board and is invalid to the extent
that it purports to suspend Robert Paynter (“Trustee Paynter”) from
participation in and receiving materials regarding all meetings of the
Board for the remainder of his term as a school trustee.
In the alternative, a declaration that the Board’s decision to suspend
Trustee Paynter from participation in and receiving materials
regarding all meetings of the Board for the remainder of his term as a
school trustee is unreasonable.
2.

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 6
3. In the further alternative, a declaration that the Board breached its
duty of procedural fairness owed to Trustee Paynter in passing the
Resolution.
An order setting aside the second paragraph of the Resolution, which
imposes the sanction of suspension.
In the event that this Court finds the Board breached its duty of
procedural fairness owed to Trustee Paynter in passing the
Resolution, an order quashing the Resolution.
An order pursuant to section 17 of the Judicial Review Procedure Act,
R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 241 (the “JRPA”), directing the Board to produce
and file the record before it when making the Resolution, including all
reports and recommendations provided by Investigator McNeil to the
Board.
An order for costs of this proceeding.
Such other relief as this Court may determine appropriate.
4.
5.

6.

7.
8.
Background Facts Generally
[8] McNally is a trustee on the Board for School District No. 61 (the “School
District”). McNally was elected by eligible electorate pursuant to the School Act.
[9] McNally was first elected as a trustee on November 19, 2011 and was most
recently re-elected on October 20, 2018.
[10] Paynter is also a trustee on the Board for the School District elected by the
eligible electorate pursuant to the School Act.
[11] Paynter was first elected as a trustee on November 15, 2015 and was most
recently re-elected on October 20, 2018.
[12] The Board is a board of education established under s. 3 of the School Act.
The Board is, further, a statutory corporation established pursuant to s. 65 of the
School Act.
[13] The Board generally consists of nine elected trustees.
[14] Pursuant to s. 49 of the School Act, the term of office for both McNally and
Paynter runs until the later of the day before the first Monday in November after

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 7
November 1, 2022 (specifically November 6, 2022) or whenever at least three
trustees elected or appointed in the October 2022 election have taken office.
[15] The relations between certain trustees, school board administration staff and
portions of the electorate within the School District since the October 2018 election
can generally be defined as strained.
[16] As a result of these strained relations, it is also fair to describe there being
effectively two “factions” within the Board at the material times following the October
2018 election. The majority faction (comprised of five trustees, including the chair of
the Board) and the minority faction (comprised of four trustees). Both McNally and
Paynter were generally aligned with the minority faction at all material times.
[17] For the reasons set out below regarding the admissibility of certain portions of
the affidavit evidence relied upon by McNally and Paynter in support of the Petitions,
this conflict between Board members is largely immaterial to the substantive matters
in issue in the Petitions. As such, I have generally not considered the evidence on
this particular point beyond putting the “record of proceeding” for the purposes of the
Petitions into some context given the acknowledged conflict as between certain
Board members at the material times.
[18] In June and July 2021, two School District administrative staff members made
formal complaints (the “Complaints”) against McNally, Paynter and two other
trustees (namely, trustees Whiteaker and Duncan).
[19] The substance of the Complaints against McNally related to her use of social
media and comments made by McNally to the complainants.
[20] The substance of the Complaints against Paynter also related to his social
media posts and certain comments made at public board meetings.
[21] In broad terms, the Complaints alleged bullying and harassing behaviour by
both McNally and Paynter.

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 8
[22] Following the Complaints, the Board ultimately engaged an investigator,
Marcia McNeil, (the “Investigator”) in the fall of 2021 to review the matter and make
findings as to whether the trustees named had violated Board policies or the
applicable law. The Investigator was also directed to make recommendations to the
Board as may be appropriate, having regard to her findings on the issues within her
mandate.
[23] On or about January 11, 2022, the Investigator delivered two reports to the
Board and the School District (the “Reports”) regarding her investigation (the
“Investigation”) into the aforementioned complaints.
[24] The Investigator found that the Complaints against McNally and Paynter were
substantiated. Specifically, the Investigator found in the Reports that the conduct of
McNally and Paynter constituted bullying and harassment within the meaning of the
Board’s regulation #4304 and violated the Board’s bylaw #9221. The Investigator
also provided written recommendations to the Board regarding sanctions against
McNally and Paynter. Of note, the Investigator concluded in the Reports that the
Complaints against the other trustees named were not substantiated.
[25] For the benefit of the record, the relevant provisions of the regulation and the
bylaw are reproduced below:
(a) Board regulation #4304 defines workplace bullying and harassment
as follows:
Workplace bullying and harassment includes any inappropriate
conduct or comment by a person towards an employee that
the person knew or reasonably ought to have know would
cause that employee to be humiliated or reasonably ought to
have known would cause that employee to be humiliated or
intimidated. Bullying and harassment can also be described as
the assertion of power through aggression and targets the
competence level of the person being bullied or harassed.
Although it can include physical abuse or threat of physical
abuse, bullying and harassment usually causes emotional
rather than physical harm.
. . .
Bullying and harassment should not be confused with
exercising managerial authority. Examples of reasonable
management action might include decisions relating to job

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 9
duties, workloads, deadlines, transfers, reorganizations, work
assignment, work evaluation, performance feedback, and
disciplinary actions; and

Bylaw #9221provides, in part, that the School Board shall: (b)
5. Provide adequate safeguards for the Superintendent
and other personnel so that they may perform their proper
functions on a professional basis. . . .

[26] The Reports of the Investigator are also found, for ease of reference, at
Volume 1, Tab 10, of the joint petition and application record, specifically at Exhibit
“D” to the Affidavit #1 of Robert Paynter. I provide this specific reference as the
Reports clearly form a very integral portion of the “record of proceeding” for the
purposes of the Petitions.
[27] Contained in the joint petition and application record is also correspondence
from the Investigator dated January 11, 2022 which speaks directly to the issue of
authority of the Board to sanction or censure McNally and Paynter for their conduct.
Several relevant quotes from that January 11, 2022 letter are as follows:
It has been a challenge to make recommendations that will allow the District
to meaningfully address the Trustee’s conduct.
I am concerned that if the Board were to sanction Trustees McNally or
Paynter for their conduct this would lead to further divisiveness on the Board
and would not improve the interactions between Trustees and senior staff.
At present, there are few meaningful remedies available to address the
conduct of elected officials. I understand this that this is an issue that has
been the subject of discussion at the UBCM and undoubtedly in other fore.
I have no doubt that Ms. [complainant #1] and Ms. [complainant #2] have
been significantly impacted by the actions of Trustees McNally and Paynter.
Although the District has a responsibility to protect them from bullying and
harassment there are few available tools which allow you to do so when the
conduct in question is initiated by an elected official.
[Emphasis added.]
[28] On January 25, 2022, the Board held an in camera meeting to consider the
Reports.
[29] At said in camera meeting, the Board resolved to accepting the findings in the
Reports.

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 10
[30] Specifically, at the Board’s meeting on January 25, 2022, the Board passed
motions resolving to censure and sanction both McNally and Paynter. The proposed
resolutions in respect of McNally and Paynter are identical. Specifically, the
proposed resolution (the “Proposed Resolution”) stated as follows:
Be it resolved that Trustee [McNally/Paynter] be censured for breach of
confidentiality as a result of their repeated public statements denigrating the
performance and reputation of Board staff contrary to Board Policy #6215
(Trustee Code of Conduct) and Regulation #4304 (Bullying and Harassment)
and for their repeated breaches of their fiduciary obligations and their
obligation to respect the confidentiality of Board process.
Be it further resolved that Trustee [McNally/Paynter] be suspended from
participation in, and receipt of materials regarding all meetings of the Board,
for the remainder of their term as trustee.
[31] McNally and Paynter each received a letter from the Board chair dated
February 1, 2022 advising them of the Board’s decision to pass the Proposed
Resolution. The Board chair’s letter further stated that the Proposed Resolution
would not become effective until after the Board’s meeting on February 8, 2022.
McNally and Paynter were both invited to provide written submissions in response to
the Proposed Resolution and corresponding sanction by February 7, 2022. The
content of the February 1, 2022 correspondence from the Board chair to McNally
and Paynter is similar but not identical. I will refer to those slight differences below.
[32] In the February 1, 2022 letter to each McNally and Paynter, the Board chair
expressly acknowledges that the “Board cannot remove you from office” but
maintains that the Proposed Resolution (and, implicitly, the proposed sanction
contained within) represents an exercise of the Board’s “inherent powers to take the
actions necessary to protect the integrity of its processes by depriving
[McNally/Paynter], to the fullest extent possible, of [their] ability to use [their] platform
as a trustee in a manner which undermines the Board’s reputation, expose[s] it to
liability and deprive[s] it of its ability to function in accordance with its legal
obligations.”
[33] On February 8, 2022, the Board held a meeting in which they passed a
resolution in respect of each McNally and Paynter. The resolution passed varies

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 11
somewhat from the Proposed Resolution, most notably by removing any reference
to a breach of confidentiality. The resolutions ultimately passed in respect of McNally
and Paynter are identical and provide as follows:
Be it resolved that Trustee [McNally/Paynter] be censured as a result of their
repeated public statements denigrating the performance and reputation of
Board staff, contrary to Board Policy #6215 (Trustee Code of Conduct), and
Regulation #4304 (Bullying and Harassment), and for their repeated
breaches of their fiduciary obligations and their obligation to respect the
confidentiality of Board process.
Be it further resolved that Trustee [McNally/Paynter] be suspected from
participation in, and receipt of materials regarding all meetings of the Board,
for the remainder of their term as trustee.
(the “Resolutions”)
[34] By letter dated February 11, 2022, the Board chair wrote to each of McNally
and Paynter and informed them of the Resolutions. The February 11, 2022 letter
cites the basis for the Resolutions as being the reasons set forth in the February 1,
2022 letter from the Board chair. The February 11, 2022 letter from the Board chair
also provides certain particulars as to the scope of the suspension which, pursuant
to the Resolutions, purports to continue until the end of each of McNally and
Paynter’s current elected term:
(a) Neither trustee is entitled to attend public sessions of the board as a
trustee, or participate in closed meetings or committees;
If either trustee attends meetings, they will be closely monitored and
could be removed or muted in the event the presiding officer feels
they are not being respectful or cooperating;
Neither trustee is allowed to communicate with staff and may only
communicate with the chair of the Board;
The Board email account for both McNally and Paynter would be
suspended; and
Neither McNally nor Paynter will receive information packages
provided to trustees.
(b)

(c)
(d)
(e)

[35] Although not expressly stated in the February 11, 2022 correspondence from
the Board chair, it is common ground that the Resolutions also render McNally and
Paynter from voting on any issues and otherwise performing any duties as a trustee
of the Board during their remaining term as an elected official.

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 12
Background Facts Specific to McNally
[36] As indicated above, the factual matrix underlying the relief sought in the
Petitions by both McNally and Paynter is very similar. However, there are some
specific factual nuances as between McNally and Paynter. I will address those
nuances with respect to McNally below and then subsequently do the same for
Paynter.
[37] In the report by the Investigator, it is noted that McNally declined to meet with
the investigator. McNally asserts this is incorrect and deposes that:
(a) McNally wrote to the investigator on October 20, 2021 requesting that she
be provided relevant documents prior to agreeing to meeting with the
Investigator; and
(b) on November 18, 2021, McNally wrote to the Investigator offering to meet.
[38] The evidence of the chair of the Board, Robert Painter, conflicts somewhat on
this point. He deposes, amongst other somewhat related facts, that the Investigator
extended an additional offer to meet with McNally prior to the conclusion of the
Investigation on December 1, 2021 but that McNally did not respond to the offer.
[39] Ultimately, I do not find this conflict in the evidence regarding the efforts to
coordinate a meeting between the Investigator and McNally to be a material
impediment in deciding the issues before the Court in respect of the McNally
petition.
[40] As indicated above, at the Board’s meeting on January 25, 2022, the Board
passed a motion endorsing the Proposed Resolutions to censure and sanction
McNally.
[41] McNally was excluded from participating in the January 25, 2022 in camera
meeting. However, on January 24, 2022, in advance of said meeting, McNally had
submitted a written response to the Reports.

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 13
[42] In the February 1, 2022 correspondence sent to McNally from the Board
chair, the chair sets out the Board’s reasons for the Proposed Resolution. Those
reasons expressly included the following:
(a) McNally’s general history of misconduct;
(b) the fact that this was not the first time the Board had been required to
“take action” arising from McNally’s refusal to comply with the Board’s
bullying and harassment policies and the Board Trustee’s code of
conduct;
(c) McNally’s refusal to apologize for the aforementioned conduct;
(d) McNally’s “complete lack of regard” for her or the Board’s obligations
under the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act, R.S.B.C.
1996, c. 165 [FOIPPA], including statements on social media accusing
Board employees of incompetence and improper behaviour and public
statements about the current investigative process;
(e) McNally’s prior release of the report of Ms. Roslyn Goldner (an
investigatory report previously commissioned by the School District as a
result of an earlier complaint regarding McNally);
(f) McNally’s conduct in exposing the Board to possible liability for
defamation, constructive dismissal, breaches of applicable privacy
legislation and serious damage to the Board’s reputation as an employer;
(g) McNally’s alleged “complete and ongoing lack of respect” for her “fiduciary
obligations”; and
(h) McNally’s prior suspension from attendance at in camera meetings for a
period of one year.

[43] McNally did not provide further written submissions in advance of the
February 8, 2022 Board meeting. Instead, McNally informed the Board, via email,

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 14
that she relied on her previous written submission (namely the January 24, 2022
submission referred to above).
Background Facts Specific to Paynter
[44] Paynter deposes that he was initially only advised of one complaint made
against him and only became aware of the second complaint in January 2022 after
the Investigator completed the Investigation and issued the Reports.
[45] Paynter received copies of the Reports on or about January 18, 2022. Upon
reviewing the Reports and learning of the second complaint, Paynter issued a
written apology, via email, to one of the complainants on January 20, 2022.
[46] After receipt of the written apology, the Board instructed Paynter to refrain
from any direct or indirect communication with the complainant and to direct all
correspondence on Board matters to the chair or the superintendent. There is no
evidence before me that suggests that Paynter did not comply with this direction.
[47] As indicated, the Board held an in camera meeting on January 25, 2022.
Paynter was advised that he could not attend the meeting, but would be permitted, if
he so chose, to speak to the Board for 15 minutes following a presentation by the
Board’s counsel regarding the Investigator’s reports and prior to Board deliberations.
[48] Paynter subsequently advised the chair of the Board that he was not willing to
speak to the Board, citing the lack of context of what the Board was requesting of
him at this juncture.
[49] As indicated above, at the Board’s meeting on January 25, 2022, the Board
passed a motion endorsing the Proposed Resolutions to censure and sanction
Paynter.
[50] In the February 1, 2022 correspondence sent to Paynter from the Board chair,
the chair sets out the Board’s reasons for the proposed resolution which included:
(a) Paynter’s general history of misconduct;

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 15
(b) the fact that this was not the first time the Board had been required to
“take action” arising from Paynter’s refusal to comply with the Board’s
Bullying and Harassment Policies and the Board Trustee’s code of
conduct, including its confidentiality provisions;
(c) Paynter’s “lack of regard” for his or the Board’s obligations under the
FOIPPA, including statements on social media accusing Board employees
of incompetence and improper behaviour;
(d) Paynter’s conduct in exposing the Board to possible liability for
defamation, constructive dismissal, breaches of applicable privacy
legislation and serious damage to the Board’s reputation as an employer;
(e) Paynter’s alleged “complete and ongoing lack of understanding or respect”
for his “fiduciary obligations”; and
(f) Paynter’s prior warning as to his responsibilities as a trustee and the need
to refrain from public criticism and denigration of Board employees.
[51] On February 7, 2022, Paynter did provide written submissions to the Board.
In those submissions, Paynter opposed the suspension and expressed concerns
about the Board’s process in passing the Proposed Resolution. Paynter further
disputed the reasons provided by the chair of the Board in the February 1, 2022
letter. However, Paynter did offer to provide a formal statement of retraction and
remove the social media comments at issue.
Issues to be Determined
[52] The parties are ad idem that there are three issues for determination in
respect of the Petitions:
1. Is the suspension of a trustee from the Board ultra vires the Board’s
jurisdiction?

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 16
2. Was the Board’s decision to suspend the petitioners unreasonable in
the circumstances?
3. Did the Board breach its duty of procedural fairness in passing the
Resolutions?
Positions of the Parties on the Issues to be Determined
[53] The position of McNally and Paynter on the issues to be determined is, as
alluded to above, as follows:
(a) The effect of the Resolutions is to remove an elected official from office.
The Resolutions are thus ultra vires of the Board, as there is no express or
implied statutory authority for the Board to suspend a trustee under the
School Act. Thus, the Resolution is unreasonable on jurisdictional
grounds;
(b) In the event that the Board does have the authority to suspend a trustee,
the Board’s decision to do so was unreasonable in this particular factual
matrix and falls outside the range of possible, acceptable conclusions that
are defensible in light of the facts and law; and
(c) To the extent that the Board relied on events other than the findings set
out in the Reports of the Investigator in coming to its decision, the Board
breached its duty of procedural fairness owed to the petitioners in passing
the Resolutions.

[54] The first two grounds, the petitioners submit, give this Court the authority to
set aside the suspension portion of the Resolutions. The third ground, the petitioners
submit, renders the Resolutions void ab initio and they should thus be quashed in
their entirety.
[55] The Board opposes the relief sought. The position of the Board on the issues
to be determined is as follows:

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 17
(a) The Board had the jurisdiction to make the Resolutions and this
determination is entitled to deference. The Board further submits that it
would be an absurd result to find that the Board did not have the power to
take positive action to remedy unsafe working conditions created by
McNally and Paynter;
(b) The Resolutions were reasonable; and
(c) The Resolutions were made following a procedurally fair process.
[56] The Board does not challenge the Court’s authority to set aside the
suspension portion of the Resolutions or quash the Resolutions in the event the
petitioners are successful on any of the three grounds set forth in the Petitions.
Rather, the Board’s submissions focused on opposing the relief sought in the
Petitions on their merits.
Preliminary Issue – Application to Strike Portions of Petitioners’ Affidavits
The Impugned Portions of the Petitioners’ Affidavits
[57] In conjunction with the hearing of both judicial review petitions, the Board
brought two preliminary applications to strike portions of the petitioners’ affidavits
pursuant to Rules 9-5(1)(b) and 22-2(12) of the Supreme Court Civil Rules [Rules].
[58] In respect of the McNally Petition, the Board brought a notice of application to
strike paragraphs 13–16, 19, 23–26, 28–29 and 57–63 of the Affidavit #1 of McNally
sworn February 28, 2022, along with Exhibits “O” to “R” of said affidavit.
[59] In respect of the Paynter Petition, the Board brought a notice of application to
strike paragraphs 8–12, 14, 19–20, 25, 30–32 and 37–42 of the Affidavit #1 of
Paynter sworn February 28, 2022, along with Exhibits “F”, “G”, “K”, “N”, and “R” to
“Y” of said affidavit.
[60] The grounds for applying to strike the impugned portions of the affidavits of
McNally and Paynter are as follows:

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 18
(a) The evidence was not before the Board when it made the Resolutions;
(b) The evidence does not assist the Court in determining whether the Board
had the jurisdiction to make the Resolutions or whether it acted fairly; and
(c) The evidence is not admissible or relevant to the matters at issue in the
Petitions.
An Overview of the Law Regarding Striking Portions of Affidavits
[61] Rule 9-5(1)(b) of the Rules empowers a court to strike out the whole or any
part of a pleading, petition or other document on the ground that it is unnecessary,
scandalous, frivolous or vexatious.
[62] Affidavit evidence that is not probative of a fact put in issue by the parties is
an “unnecessary” document under Rule 9-5(1)(b) (see 6180 Fraser Holdings Inc. v.
Ali, 2012 BCSC 247 at para. 41).
[63] Further, R. 22-2(12) provides that, subject to subrule (13), an affidavit must
state only what a person swearing or affirming the affidavit would be permitted to
state in evidence at a trial. This applies in the case of a petition where a final order is
being sought (see British Columbia Investment Management Corporation v. Canada
(Attorney General), 2016 BCSC 2554 at paras. 6–7).
[64] Similarly, affidavits must not include opinions, argument or legal conclusions
(see British Columbia Investment Management Corporation, at para. 7).
[65] As such, an affidavit containing improper or inadmissible content may be
struck under either R. 9-5(1)(b) or R. 22-2(12) (see Lang v. Lapp, 2015 BCSC 1838
at para. 34).
[66] Practically speaking, where an application to strike is heard at the same time
as the petition on its merits, the struck portions of the impugned affidavit(s) are given
no weight by the court (see McMahon v. Harper, 2017 BCSC 2328 at para. 108).

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 19
[67] Important for the present applications before the Court is the well-established
principle that a judicial review petition is not a trial de novo. Rather, as a general
rule, the court’s review of a decision in the context of a judicial review must be based
on the decision makers record of the proceeding as defined in the Judicial Review
and Procedure Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 241 [JRPA].
[68] Section 1 of the JRPA provides that the “record of the proceeding” includes
the following:
(a) a document by which the proceeding is commenced;
(b) a notice of hearing in the proceeding;
(c) an intermediate order made by the tribunal;
(d) a document produced in evidence at a hearing before the tribunal, subject
to any limitation expressly imposed by any other enactment on the extent
to which or the purpose for which a document may be used in evidence in
a proceeding;
(e) a transcript, if any, of the oral evidence given at a hearing; and
(f) the decision of the tribunal and any reasons given by it.
[69] This court in Kinexus Bioinformatics Corporation v. Asad, 2010 BCSC 33
described the approach to the admissibility of evidence not before the decision
maker on a judicial review as follows at paragraph 17 (citing Ross v. British
Columbia (Human Rights Tribunal), 2009 BCSC 1969):
[17] The Court’s power to admit evidence beyond the record of proceeding
must be exercised sparingly, and only in an exceptional case. Such evidence
may be admissible for the limited purpose of showing a lack or jurisdiction or
a denial of natural justice. In Ross, Silverman J. said the following at
paras. 26-27 after reviewing the relevant caselaw:
[26] The general rule with respect to the admissibility of extrinsic
material is that it is, except in very special circumstances,
inadmissible. This is because a judicial review is a review of a
decision on the tribunal’s record of proceedings. It is that very record
which is the subject of the judicial review. Affidavit material describing
evidence not before the tribunal or attaching documents that were not
before the decision-maker is not part of that record and is generally
inadmissible on judicial review. . . .
[27] There are, however, exceptions to the general rule where
extrinsic evidence may sometimes be admissible. For example, it may
be admissible for the limited purpose of showing a lack or jurisdiction
or a denial of natural justice. In circumstances where the grounds for

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 20
judicial review are a breach of natural justice or procedural fairness,
the petitioner may be entitled to adduce new evidence. However, the
new evidence must be both relevant and necessary before it will be
admissible [.]
Application of the Law to the Petitioners’ Affidavits
[70] In respect of the impugned portions of the McNally affidavit, I have concluded
that the respondent’s objections are generally well founded. As such, I am
substantially allowing the respondent’s notice of application on the basis that the
impugned affidavit evidence is not relevant to the Board’s jurisdiction (or lack
thereof) to make the Resolutions, is not of probative assistance to the Court in
determining whether the Board acted unfairly, or is otherwise inadmissible. In
accordance with the direction of the Court in McMahon, I am giving no weight to the
following paragraphs of the McNally affidavit:
(a) paragraphs 13–14 and 29 which contain opinion evidence regarding the
role of a school trustee and the appropriateness of McNally’s behaviour as
a trustee within the context of that role;
(b) paragraphs 15–16, 25–26 and 28 which contain inadmissible evidence
about the impact of McNally’s role on the Board relative to her emotional
state at various times during her tenure as a trustee;
(c) paragraphs 19 and 23–24 which contain unnecessary evidence about the
fractious relations amongst the Board’s trustees prior to the Resolutions.
In finding that this evidence is unnecessary, I recognize that this conflict is
referenced in passing in the first Report of the Investigator but note that
the Investigator expressly states that such issues are outside the scope of
her report. It is also referred only in passing above in these reasons for
judgment in putting the record of proceeding into context;
(d) paragraphs 58–60 which contain inadmissible evidence about school
system stakeholders who took issue with the Resolutions. Exhibits “P” and
“Q”, which are examples of said complaints, are similarly not admissible

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 21
and, in any event, are hearsay which is not admissible given that the
Petitions seek final orders; and
(e) paragraphs 62–63 which contain opinion evidence as to the effect of the
Resolutions on students, employees, residents and taxpayers.
[71] The impugned portions of the McNally affidavit which I will not strike are
paragraphs 57 and 61, which also append Exhibits “O” and “R”. Exhibit “O” is the
media release issued by the Board on February 11, 2022 (the “Media Release”) and
Exhibit “R” is an open letter written by the Board chair dated February 24, 2022 (the
“Open Letter”). The Media Release provides a general overview of the Board’s
decision to pass the Resolutions and the Open Letter goes into considerable detail
regarding the Board’s position, including case authority and its basis for passing the
Resolutions. In my view, both properly form part of the “record of the proceeding” as
defined in s. 1 of the JRPA and as such are admissible for the purposes of McNally’s
Petition.
[72] In respect of the impugned portions of the Paynter affidavit, I have concluded
that the respondent’s objections are also generally well founded. As such, I am
substantially allowing the respondent’s notice of application on the basis that the
impugned evidence is not relevant to the Board’s jurisdiction (or lack thereof) to
make the Resolutions, is not of probative assistance to the Court in determining
whether the Board acted unfairly, or is otherwise inadmissible. In accordance with
the direction of the court in McMahon, I am giving no weight to the following
paragraphs of the Paytner affidavit:
(a) paragraphs 8–10 which contain unnecessary evidence about the fractious
relations amongst the Board’s trustees prior to the Resolutions. In finding
that this evidence is unnecessary, I again recognize that this conflict is
referenced in passing in the first Report of the Investigator but note that
the Investigator expressly states that such issues are outside the scope of
her report;

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 22
(b) paragraphs 11–12 which contain opinion evidence as to whether the
actions taken by Paynter during his tenure as a trustee were justified;
(c) paragraph 25 wherein Paynter deposes that McNally provided him with a
copy of the letter from the Board chair she received on February 1, 2022
and appends that letter at Exhibit “K”. Said letter clearly forms part of the
“record of proceeding” as defined in the JRPA as it relates directly to the
McNally Petition and is already in evidence for that purpose. However, it is
both hearsay and unnecessary in the Paynter affidavit;
(d) paragraphs 31–31 wherein Paynter provides opinion evidence as to the
effect the Resolutions have had on him;
(e) paragraphs 30, 37–39 and 41 wherein Paynter refers to various open
letters, news articles and media releases about the resolution. Neither
these paragraphs, nor the corresponding exhibits, namely Exhibits “N”, “R”
to “W” and “Y”, are admissible for the purposes of the Paynter Petition
given the relief sought; and
(f) paragraph 42 wherein Paynter provides opinion evidence as to matters
that may be before the Board during the duration of his suspension.
[73] The impugned portions of the Paynter affidavit which I will not strike are:
(a) paragraph 14 which appends School District 61 regulation #4304 –
Bullying and Harassment and provides a brief overview as to the
processes provided for in said regulation. Regulation #4304 clearly forms
part of the “record of proceeding” as defined in the JRPA given it is
specifically relied upon in the Resolutions. Further, in my view, the brief
context provided in the Paynter affidavit is admissible. It was not
necessary to simply append the Regulation as an exhibit to the Paynter
affidavit without any commentary;

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 23
(b) paragraphs 19–20 which provide evidence about an email Paynter sent to
one of the complainants whose complaint triggered the Investigation and
the Board’s response (both of which are appended as Exhibits “F” and
“G”). These communications took place prior to the passing of the
Resolutions and, in my view, form part of the “record of proceeding” as
defined in the JRPA. Further, in the February 1, 2022 letter from the Board
chair to McNally, her refusal to apologize was specifically noted. As such,
it would be inconsistent to exclude evidence of Paynter’s offer of apology
made prior to the passing of the Resolutions; and
(c) paragraph 40 which refers to an email received during the course of the
investigation leading to the Goldner report. The Golder report is
specifically referenced in the Board chair’s Open Letter. As I have
concluded that the Open Letter forms part of the “record of proceeding”,
Paynter is entitled to provide this evidence which puts the relevant portion
of the Open Letter into context.

Standing
[74]
JRPA.
The Petitions are, as noted, judicial review petitions brought pursuant to the

[75] In very broad terms, judicial review is the process by which the court
supervises the exercise of statutory and public authority by administrative decision
makers to ensure that they act within the scope of their delegated authority (see
Strauss v. North Fraser Pretrial Centre (Deputy Warden of Operations), 2019 BCCA
207 at paras. 18–24).
[76] The Resolutions, which are passed pursuant to section 65(4) of the School
Act, are thus subject to judicial review.
[77] Both McNally and Paynter have standing to apply for judicial review as parties
whose legal rights and powers were/are affected by the Resolutions.

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 24
[78] Neither of these propositions were challenged by the Board.
Standard of Review
[79] The parties also agree that the standard of review of whether a decision is
within the jurisdiction of an administrative body, subject to certain exceptions which
are not engaged in either of the Petitions, is reasonableness (see Canada (Minister
of Citizenship and Immigration) v. Vavilov, 2019 SCC 65 at paras. 65–68).
[80] The Supreme Court of Canada in Vavilov described why the reasonableness
standard is to be applied to questions of administrative jurisdiction and how that
standard of review is to be applied at paras. 65–68 of their decision:
[65] We would cease to recognize jurisdictional questions as a distinct
category attracting correctness review. The majority in Dunsmuir held that it
was “without question” (para. 50) that the correctness standard must be
applied in reviewing jurisdictional questions (also referred to as true questions
of jurisdiction or vires). True questions of jurisdiction were said to arise
“where the tribunal must explicitly determine whether its statutory grant of
power gives it the authority to decide a particular matter”: . . . Since
Dunsmuir, however, majorities of this Court have questioned the necessity of
this category, struggled to articulate its scope and “expressed serious
reservations about whether such questions can be distinguished as a
separate category of questions of law”: . . .
[66] As Gascon J. noted in CHRC, the concept of “jurisdiction” in the
administrative law context is inherently “slippery”: para. 38. This is because,
in theory, any challenge to an administrative decision can be characterized as
“jurisdictional” in the sense that it calls into question whether the decision
maker had the authority to act as it did: . . . Although this Court’s
jurisprudence contemplates that only a much narrower class of “truly”
jurisdictional questions requires correctness review, it has observed that
there are no “clear markers” to distinguish such questions from other
questions related to the interpretation of an administrative decision maker's
enabling statute: . . . Despite differing views on whether it is possible to
demarcate a class of “truly” jurisdictional questions, there is general
agreement that “it is often difficult to distinguish between exercises of
delegated power that raise truly jurisdictional questions from those entailing
an unremarkable application of an enabling statute: . . . This tension is
perhaps clearest in cases where the legislature has delegated broad authority
to an administrative decision maker that allows the latter to make regulations
in pursuit of the objects of its enabling statute: . . .
[67] In CHRC, the majority, while noting this inherent difficulty — and the
negative impact on litigants of the resulting uncertainty in the law —
nonetheless left the question of whether the category of true questions of
jurisdiction remains necessary to be determined in a later case. After hearing

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 25
submissions on this issue and having an adequate opportunity for reflection
on this point, we are now in a position to conclude that it is not necessary to
maintain this category of correctness review. The arguments that support
maintaining this category — in particular the concern that a delegated
decision maker should not be free to determine the scope of its own authority
— can be addressed adequately by applying the framework for conducting
reasonableness review that we describe below. Reasonableness review is
both robust and responsive to context. A proper application of the
reasonableness standard will enable courts to fulfill their constitutional duty to
ensure that administrative bodies have acted within the scope of their lawful
authority without having to conduct a preliminary assessment regarding
whether a particular interpretation raises a “truly” or “narrowly” jurisdictional
issue and without having to apply the correctness standard.
[68] Reasonableness review does not give administrative decision makers
free rein in interpreting their enabling statutes, and therefore does not give
them licence to enlarge their powers beyond what the legislature intended.
Instead, it confirms that the governing statutory scheme will always operate
as a constraint on administrative decision makers and as a limit on their
authority. Even where the reasonableness standard is applied in reviewing a
decision maker’s interpretation of its authority, precise or narrow statutory
language will necessarily limit the number of reasonable interpretations open
to the decision maker — perhaps limiting it one. Conversely, where the
legislature has afforded a decision maker broad powers in general terms —
and has provided no right of appeal to a court — the legislature’s intention
that the decision maker have greater leeway in interpreting its enabling
statute should be given effect. . . .
[81] Although the parties agree that Vavilov mandates that the standard of review
to be applied to the determination of whether a decision is within a statutory decision
maker’s jurisdiction is reasonableness, the Board stresses in its submission that the
Board’s determination as to whether it had the jurisdiction to pass the Resolutions is
entitled to deference from this Court.
[82] Pursuant to Vavilov, the standard of review of the Resolutions on their merits
is also reasonableness as there is nothing in the factual matrix of the Petitions which
would rebut the presumption of reasonableness (see paras. 10 and 16 of Vavilov).
[83] However, with respect to the duty of procedural fairness and any allegation of
breach thereof, the parties are again ad idem that the standard of review remains
correctness or “fairness” (see Murray Purcha & Son Ltd. v. Barriere (District), 2019
BCCA 4 at paras. 23–28).

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 26
The Governing Legislation
[84] The entirety of the provisions of the School Act referred to by the parties in
their submissions are set out in Schedule 1 to these reasons for judgment. I will
briefly summarize the key provisions of the School Act relevant to my consideration
of the issues raised in the Petitions as follows:
(a) Section 15 of the School Act sets out a school board’s duties toward
employees;
(b) Sections 35 and 49 of the School Act provide that trustees are elected at a
general school election and typically serve for a four-year term;
(c) Section 65 of the School Act establishes that the school board is a
corporation and then sets out some of the powers of a school board, the
most important, in the circumstances, being s. 65(4) which provides that
unless expressly required to be exercised by bylaw, all powers of a board
may be exercised by bylaw or by resolution;
(d) Section 67(2) of the School Act requires that the Board elect a chair
amongst its members;
(e) There are a number of provisions in the School Act that address the
disqualification and removal of a trustee, albeit there are none specifically
addressing the suspension of a trustee. Namely, a trustee will be
disqualified from holding office if, amongst other things, the trustee fails to
make the oath or affirmation of office, is continuously absent from board
meetings, commits an election offence under the Local Government Act,
R.S.B.C. 2015, c. 1, maintains status as a school district employee, is
convicted of an indicatable offence or any other offence that renders a
trustee unsuitable to perform their duties, or votes on matters of which
they have a pecuniary interest (see ss. 33, 34, 48, 52, 53, 58–63);

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 27
(f) Under ss. 54(1) and s. 62(1) of the School Act, the electorate can also
apply to the court to address a trustee’s right to hold office. However, a
school board is not expressly provided with this standing;
(g) Section 70(2) of the School Act does expressly permit a majority of
trustees to expel a fellow trustee from a meeting for improper conduct.
However, the scope of this section only permits the majority of trustees
present to remove a trustee from the single meeting in which the trustee is
engaging in the improper conduct. It is not a roving power to remove a
trustee from board meetings generally;
(h) Section 85 of the School Act expressly grants school boards the power
and capacity of a natural person;
(i) Under s. 168.03 of the School Act, the Minister of Education can issue an
administrative directive to a school board if the board is failing or has
failed to meet its obligations under the School Act, or it is in the public
interest to do so; and
(j) Section 172 of the School Act provides the Lieutenant Governor in Council
the authority to remove an entire board of trustees upon the appointment
of an official trustee in very limited circumstances, including inter alia,
default of certain financial obligations, serious financial jeopardy,
substantial non-compliance with the Act or the regulations, or substantial
non-performance of the duties of the board.

[85] There is no significant controversy between the parties as to the scope and
application of the aforementioned provisions of the School Act. The primary
controversy, as I will address below, is whether the School Act provides a complete
code of procedures by which an elected trustee can be removed from office,
disqualified from office or otherwise restrained from carrying out their duties as a
trustee in office.

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 28
[86] McNally and Paynter maintain it is such a complete code and that nothing in
the School Act provides the Board with the authority or jurisdiction to suspend a
trustee from office; particularly where the suspension amounts to what they assert is
a de facto removal.
[87] The Board disagrees and maintains that the School Act is not a complete
code and as such, the Board has as the jurisdiction, by necessary implication, to
suspend trustees such as it did in the case of McNally and Paynter. The Board
further disputes the suggestion that the suspensions of McNally and Paynter amount
to a de facto removal from office.
[88] In terms of other relevant statutory authority:
(a) as employers, a school board must ensure the health and safety of their
employees and remedy any workplace hazards pursuant to s. 21 of the
Workers Compensation Act, R.S.B.C. 2019, c. 1; and
(b) the Interpretation Act, R.S.B.C. 996, c. 238, s. 27(2) sets out the following
regarding ancillary powers generally:
If in an enactment power is given to a person to do or enforce the
doing of an act or thing, all the powers that are necessary to enable
the person to do or enforce the doing of the act or thing are also
deemed to be given.

Implied Authority to Suspend or Sanction Trustees
[89] As set out above, the Board recognizes that it did not, in the circumstances,
have the express ability under the School Act to suspend either McNally or Paynter
as trustees. As such, any authority conferred on the Board to suspend a trustee or
trustees from performing their duties must come from the doctrine of necessary
implication.
[90] As a starting point, the Supreme Court of Canada in Chamberlain v. Surrey
School District No. 36, 2002 SCC 86, described the decision-making powers of a

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 29
school board under the School Act. Specifically, Chief Justice McLachlin (as she
was then) described those powers as follows at para. 28:
28 Here I differ from my colleague, Gonthier J., who maintains that the
Board can function in a manner akin to a municipal counsel or a legislature. It
is true that, like legislatures and municipal counsels, school boards are
elected bodies endowed with rule-making and decision-making powers
through which they are intended to further the interests of their constituents.
However, school boards possess only those powers their statute confers on
them. Here the Act makes it clear that the Board does not possess the same
degree of autonomy as a legislature or a municipal counsel. It must act in a
strictly secular manner. It must foster an atmosphere of tolerance and
respect. It must not allow itself to be dominated by one religious or moral
point of view, but must respect a diversity of views. It must adhere to the
processes set out by the Act, which for approval of supplementary materials
include according to a general regulation and considering the learning
objectives of the provincial curriculum. Finally, to ensure that it has acted
within its allotted powers, the Board is subject to judicial review in the courts.
[91] As set forth in the summary of the provisions of the School Act above, the
School Act does not provide any express authority for the Board to suspend a
trustee. The only express power of sanction conferred upon the Board vis-à-vis a
trustee is that set out in s. 70(2) and that, as noted, simply provides authority to
expel a trustee from a single meeting due to improper conduct at said meeting.
[92] In light of this lack of an express power to suspend a trustee under the School
Act, the court must take a purposive reading of the legislation to determine whether
such an implied power exits and, if so, the extent of such a power conferred upon
the Board. In so doing, the court may look to the intention of the legislative drafters,
the wording of the legislation, the structure of the legislation and the purpose of the
legislation to determine what powers are practically speaking necessary to allow the
Board to accomplish it objectives mandated by the School Act. The involves the
application, as referred to above, of the doctrine of jurisdiction by necessary
implication.
[93] Jurisdiction by necessary implication exists where the power in question is
reasonably necessary for the statutory body to accomplish its mandate, but is not
one to which the legislature has clearly turned its mind.

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 30
[94] In ATCO Gas & Pipelines Ltd. v. Alberta (Energy & Utilities Board), 2006 SCC
4, the Supreme Court of Canada expressly explained the doctrine of jurisdiction by
necessary implication. Specifically, Justice Bastarache, for the majority, described
the doctrine as follows at paras. 50–51 and 73:
50 Consequently, a grant of authority to exercise a discretion as found in
s. 15(3) of the AEUBA and s. 37 of the PUBA does not confer unlimited
discretion to the Board. As submitted by ATCO, the Board’s discretion is to
be exercised within the confines of the statutory regime and principles
generally applicable to regulatory matters, for which the legislature is
assumed to have had regard in passing that legislation (see Sullivan, at
pp. 154-55). In the same vein, it is useful to refer to the following passage
from Bell Canada v. Canada (Canadian Radio-Television and
Telecommunications Commission), [1989] 1 S.C.R. 1722, at p. 1756:
The powers of any administrative tribunal must of course be stated in
its enabling statute but they may also exist by necessary implication
from the wording of the act, its structure and its purpose. Although
courts must refrain from unduly broadening the powers of such
regulatory authorities through judicial law-making, they must also
avoid sterilizing these powers through overly technical interpretations
of enabling statutes.
51 The mandate of this Court is to determine and apply the intention of
the legislature (Bell ExpressVu, at para. 62) without crossing the line between
judicial interpretation and legislative drafting (see R. v. McIntosh, [1995] 1
S.C.R. 686, at para. 26; Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., at para. 174). That being
said, this rule allows for the application of the “doctrine of jurisdiction by
necessary implication”; the powers conferred by an enabling statute are
construed to include not only those expressly granted but also, by implication,
all powers which are practically necessary for the accomplishment of the
object intended to be secured by the statutory regime created by the
legislature (see Brown, at p. 2-16.2; Bell Canada, at p. 1756). Canadian
courts have in the past applied the doctrine to ensure that administrative
bodies have the necessary jurisdiction to accomplish their statutory mandate:
When legislation attempts to create a comprehensive regulatory
framework, the tribunal must have the powers which by practical
necessity and necessary implication flow from the regulatory authority
explicitly conferred upon it.
. . .
73 The City seems to assume that the doctrine of jurisdiction by
necessary implication applies to “broadly drawn powers” as it does for
“narrowly drawn powers”; this cannot be. The Ontario Energy Board in its
decision in Re Consumers’ Gas Co. (1987), E.B.R.O. 410-II/411-II/412-II, at
para. 4.73, enumerated the circumstances when the doctrine of jurisdiction by
necessary implication may be applied:

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 31
· [when] the jurisdiction sought is necessary to accomplish the
objectives of the legislative scheme and is essential to the
Board fulfilling its mandate;
[when] the enabling act fails to explicitly grant the power to
accomplish the legislative objective;
[when] the mandate of the Board is sufficiently broad to
suggest a legislative intention to implicitly confer jurisdiction;
[when] the jurisdiction sought must not be one which the Board
has dealt with through use of expressly granted powers,
thereby showing an absence of necessity; and
[when] the Legislature did not address its mind to the issue
and decide against conferring the power to the Board.

(See also Brown, at p. 2-16.3.)
[Emphasis added].
Analogous Caselaw
[95] All parties rely on case law from somewhat analogous circumstances which
address the limits of a representative body’s implied power to censure and sanction
its own elected members. Specifically, as the issue does not appear to have ever
been judicially considered in the context of a school board as noted at the outset,
examples are drawn from the municipal governance and Indigenous governance
context to assist the court in deciding the issues posed in the Petitions.
[96] The following cases are relied upon from the municipal governance context:
(a) Mr. Justice McKinnon in Barnett v. Cariboo Regional District, 2009 BCSC
471 at paras. 21–28 and 56, found the censure of an elected director to be
procedurally unfair. While the board had an implied authority to govern its
own internal procedures by regulating the conduct of its elected members,
they did not have the implied authority to effectively remove or suspend an
appointed director;
(b) In Skakun v. Prince George (City), 2011 BCSC 1796, Mr. Justice Crawford
recognized that the implied power of a city council to regulate misconduct
of a fellow councillor fell short of disqualification. In Skakun, the city
councillor petitioner admitted to misconduct by disseminating a

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 32
confidential report, in breach of their oath of office and FOIPPA. At
paras. 29, 43 and 46, Justice Crawford found that the Community Charter,
S.B.C. 2003, c. 26, provided the circumstances in which a city councillor
may be disqualified such that the council only had the implied power to
regulate the conduct of council members that did not give rise to
disqualification:
[29] It is a very careful path for council to embark on because it is
not necessarily charted. Whether or not the conduct, or in this case
the proposed censure and sanctions, is appropriate, is not set out
clearly in the legislation. The legislation deals with matters that go to
disqualification. A council member is an elected member, like a
member of the House of Parliament, and so the most serious matters
that can arise such as conflicts of interest, failure to take the oath of
office, insider knowledge that is acted on, all of those matters are set
out in the statute and can give rise to disqualification.
. . .
[43] By my reading of the Community Charter, it is reasonable to
imply council have an obligation to regulate a councillor's misconduct
when there is a substantial falling away from the expected standard.
. . .
[46] In sum then, I find there is an implied power in council to
regulate misconduct of a councillor that falls short of disqualification.
[97] Paynter and McNally argue that Skakun can be relied on for the proposition
that representative bodies do not have the implied power to disqualify members
where disqualification processes are set out in their governing legislation. Paynter
specifically states that a direct analogy can be drawn to the School Act’s provisions
on trustee removal. Further, Paynter relies on the court’s comments in obiter in
Skakun at paras. 44 and 48–50 that any implied sanction power must be exercised
cautiously:

[44] I think it reasonable to think in certain cases council need to
state the standard of expected conduct, but I note this: it is a power to
be exercised with great care and great discretion. Far too easily, this
could turn into an abuse of process for cheap political gain, and any
council that sets out in this direction must be careful in what it is
doing. But I do not see any such suggestion in the situation before
me.

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 33

[48] But when I look at how the Houses of Parliament have
approached this matter, it seems to me they have been most
cautious, and one can see that even in the American elected houses,
and that an expression of censure is indeed a most serious step to
take. To propose sanctions on top of that is perhaps not necessary.
[49] It seems to me, if I may make the suggestion to council, that
while I imply a reasonable exercise of power to censure, I am not so
confident of the basis for sanction, though it was argued that some of
those matters, such as appointment to committees or to acting mayor
and so on, are set out in the statute, and thereby, by reasonable
implication, those attributes of office could be withdrawn or rescinded.
[50] That may well be, but I put these five matters for
consideration: one, I question the extent of the power, firstly to
censure, but secondly to sanction; . . .
[Emphasis added.]
(c) In Anderson v. Strathcona Regional District, 2021 BCSC 1800, Mr. Justice
Gaul dismissed a petition to quash a resolution to censure and sanction
an elected director on the board of a regional district, finding that the
decision was not unfair or unreasonable. Mr. Justice Gaul further found
that restrictions placed on the director’s access to confidential reports
were also within the board’s authority to govern its own internal
procedures and process; and
(d) Finally, Paynter also draws on Madam Justice Marzari’s decision in
Dupont v. Port Coquitlam (City), 2021 BCSC 728, to uphold the censure
and sanction of a city councillor. In Dupont, a resolution was passed
censuring the councillor for 12 months, removing her from certain
committees and roles, and providing alternative procedures for access to
confidential materials in response to her improper release of confidential
information. Justice Marzari stated, at paras. 23 and 27-28, that city
council had properly exercised its jurisdiction in censuring the councillor:
[23] Sections 4 and 114 of the Community Charter provide
municipalities and their councils broad authority to control their
processes. Generally speaking, councillors are not subject to the
ordinary reviews and disciplinary processes of traditional employment;
their performance is left to be evaluated by the electors every four
years at the ballot box. Problematic behaviours may nevertheless

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 34
arise during the course of a councillor’s term, and motions of censure
have long been used by all levels of government to express
disapproval of a member’s conduct. In the local government context,
the courts have affirmed that councils and boards are entitled to use
this procedure to respond to the conduct of their members. . . .
. . .
[27] In addition, I agree with the City that the authority of local
government councils and boards to remove discretionary
appointments is inherent in their authority to make such appointments,
for example pursuant to ss. 114, 116 and 130 of the Community
Charter.
[28] The authority to set the procedures for access to confidential
materials arises from Council’s express authority to govern its own
internal procedures.

[98] On the basis of the foregoing, it is acknowledged that the court has
recognized that municipal councils and regional districts have an implied power to
censure or sanction elected members for matters which are not expressly set out in
the Community Charter or the Local Government Act. Further, while the Supreme
Court of Canada in Chamberlain drew a distinction between the broader decision-
making powers of a municipal counsel as compared to a board of education, it is not
disputed by the petitioners that the Board has some limited implied power to secure
and sanction trustees under the School Act. The issue turns on whether the nature
of the sanction imposed on McNally and Paynter, namely a suspension from
performing all duties whatsoever for the balance of their elected term, falls within
that implied power having regard to the limits placed pursuant to the doctrine of
jurisdiction by necessary implication.
[99] Drawing analogies from another somewhat similar area of law, the Indigenous
governance cases relied on by the petitioners can be summarized as follows:
(a) In Whalen v. Fort McMurray No. 468 First Nation, 2019 FC 732,
Mr. Justice Grammond of the Federal Court quashed a First Nation’s
decision to suspend one of its councillors as the council did not have the
implied or inherent power to do so as their election regulations acted as a
complete code which provided an “exhaustive statement of the rules
governing the election, removal and suspension of its leaders” (see

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 35

para. 2). Further, at paras. 46-47, 49-50 and 52-53, Mr. Justice
Grammond expanded upon this conclusion and held that:
[46] I am not sure that the distinctions that FMFN attempts to draw
with Orr are tenable. I reject FMFN’s arguments, however, for more
fundamental reasons: they are based on an incorrect analogy
between employees and holders of public office and they would
upend the political structure that the Election Regulations put in place.
[47] The Election Regulations are an expression of FMFN’s
membership’s will to delegate certain powers to the Council, but to
remain responsible for the selection of Council members. Not only are
councillors elected by the membership, but they can only be removed
by a vote of the members (sections 18.6 and 18.7). The Council has
no power to remove a councillor without a vote of the membership.
. . .
[49] In this context, the distinction suggested by FMFN between
suspension and removal is untenable. Both have the same effect of
preventing a councillor from exercising his or her powers and duties,
including the right to participate and vote at council meetings. The
rationale for withholding from the council the power to suspend (or
remove) councillors is obvious. Suspension by the council would
deprive FMFN electors of the right to choose their leaders. The
suspension of a councillor has the practical effect of overturning the
results of the election and of depriving the electors of representation:
Prince v Sucker Creek First Nation, 2008 FC 1268 at paragraph 31
[Prince]. This cannot be reasonably reconciled with the purpose and
structure of the Election Regulations.
[50] Moreover, representative democracy is not a “winner-takes-all”
affair. While decisions may be made by the majority of a
representative body such as FMFN’s Council, this must be done
within a process that allows for deliberation and the expression of
dissenting voices. . . .
. . .
[52] If the majority of Council had the power to suspend councillors,
there would be a risk of transforming deliberation into monologue and
excluding dissenting councillors altogether.
[53] In its wisdom, the FMFN membership decided to reserve to
itself the power to remove and suspend councillors and to deny the
Council the power to act alone in those matters, save in certain
specific circumstances that do not apply here. In the Election
Regulations, the absence of a provision authorizing suspension in the
circumstances of this case may well be a deliberate choice: Johnson,
at paragraph 31. This deliberate choice does not create a gap to be
filled by this Court.
[Emphasis added]; and

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 36
(b) In McKenzie v. Mikisew Cree First Nation, 2020 FC 1184, Madam Justice
Strickland of the Federal Court quashed a resolution that suspended three
band councillors until they apologized in writing for the “unethical” actions
which resulted in their suspension. The court held, at paras. 66 and 80,
that even where election regulations were silent on suspension powers,
indefinite suspension was effectively a removal from office and thus
outside the council’s authority:
[66] It is true that the Election Regulations are silent as to
suspensions. However, s 15 of the MCFN Election Regulations, like
the relevant provisions at issue in Prince and Lafond, governs the
removal of councillors from office. In both Prince and Lafond, the
Court rejected any distinction between removal and what was
essentially an indefinite suspension (Lafond at paras 12 – 13; Prince
at para 33). Because the suspensions were not time limited, they
effectively amounted to removal. . . .
. . .
[80] The primary point made by both Prince and Whalen – as well
as Orr, Lafond and other cases – is that where election regulations
cover the subject then there is no inherent right to suspend or remove
councillors. Prince, like Lafond, held that the application to set aside
the suspension of the councillors must be allowed because the
indefinite suspension was effectively a removal and the council had
not followed the election rules to remove the applicants. In Whalen,
Justice Grammond was not quoting Prince nor did he misstate that
decision. He implicitly acknowledged that the finding in Prince was
concerned with the indefinite suspension when he stated that in
Prince the suspension was tantamount to a removal. Moreover, his
analysis was not concerned with the duration of the suspension, but
with the rationale for withholding from the council the power to
suspend (or remove) councillors and the impact of either a
suspension or a removal, being that suspension would deprive the
electors of the right to choose their leaders.
[Emphasis added.]

[100] Drawing on the principles in Whalen and McKenzie, McNally and Paynter
submit that the Board does not have the implied authority to suspend either of them
from their duties as an elected trustee because:
(a) the School Act represents a complete code on the circumstances where
trustees may be removed from office; and

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 37
(b) the Board’s implied power to suspend trustees entirely for the remainder
of their term would improperly deprive the electorate of their right to
choose their educational representatives.

[101] In contrast, the Board submits that it clearly had the jurisdiction to make the
Resolutions by virtue of the School Act and the overarching statutory context in
British Columbia. Specifically, the Board relies upon s. 85(1) of the School Act
which, as set out above, provides that the Board has the capacity of a natural person
for the purposes of carrying out its powers, functions and duties under the School
Act and can and does so in accordance with its statutory obligations (see s. 27(2) of
the Interpretation Act).
[102] The Board further submits that the comments of the Supreme Court of
Canada in Chamberlain cannot be generalized as the factual matrix underlying that
case makes it distinguishable from the circumstances underlying the Petitions.
Analysis Regarding Jurisdiction and Implied Authority
[103] Having considered the issues raised and argued in the Petitions at length, I
shall start my analysis of the relevant statutory provisions and caselaw with the
conclusion that the practical effect of the suspension of McNally and Paynter
provided for in the Resolutions is to remove an elected official from office for the
remainder of their elected term.
[104] This, as submitted by counsel for Paynter, is evident upon a review of the
description of the breadth of the suspension set forth in the Board chair’s
correspondence of February 11, 2022. As I have set out the terms of that
correspondence in detail above, I will simply summarize that the correspondence
both McNally and Paynter received made very clear that they would not be entitled
to participate in public or private sessions for the remainder of their elected term as
trustee, would not be provided information meetings about those meetings and
would be precluded from using the email account each received as a result of their
election as trustees to communicate with district staff, other trustees, stakeholders
and so forth.

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 38
[105] Looked at from another perspective, I cannot find any substantive duties that
the either McNally or Paynter possessed following the passing of the Resolutions,
other than ceremonially holding the title of a Trustee for the Board pending the
upcoming election.
[106] Having reached that conclusion, the focus of the Court’s inquiry must turn to
whether the Board has the implied authority to do so by the doctrine of necessary
implication. I further have concluded, for the reasons set forth below, that it does not.
[107] Specifically, I have concluded that the School Act is a complete code in
relation to the authority to remove a trustee. There are various provisions in the
School Act, expressly cited above, that address the disqualification and removal of a
trustee. None of those provisions are applicable here. Rather, for the Board to
succeed, it must be necessary to conclude that despite the multiple provisions
addressing the removal of a trustee, there remains an implied authority to suspend a
trustee on terms that I have concluded amount to a removal. That position is not
tenable upon a consideration of the law regarding the doctrine of necessary
implication.
[108] In this regard, I refer back to my earlier restatement of the law that jurisdiction
by necessary implication exists where the power in question is reasonably
necessary for the statutory body to accomplish its mandate, but is not one to which
the legislature has clearly turned its mind.
[109] In drafting and passing the School Act, the legislature clearly turned its mind
to the issue of disqualification and removal. It would appear it did not expressly turn
its mind to suspension apart from the very limited provisions of s. 70(2). As a result
of that gap in the legislation, there is some implied power to sanction trustees where
the circumstances warrant same. I note in this regard that McNally was subject to a
prior sanction which limited her ability to attend meetings and receive materials for a
finite period of time. Although the propriety of that sanction was not the subject of the
Petitions and not before this Court for substantive determination, this would appear
to be the type of sanction or censure beyond s. 70(2) for which jurisdiction is

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 39
available by virtue of the doctrine of necessary implication. However, the
Resolutions are fundamentally different given my conclusion, as set out above, that
they effectively removed McNally and Paynter from performing all substantive duties
as an elected trustee for the remainder of their elected term.
[110] In reaching the above conclusion, I do recognize that the Board relies upon its
obligations as an employer under s. 21 of the Workers Compensation Act, the text of
which I referred to above.
[111] However, I accept the submission of the petitioners that while the Board’s
obligations under that legislation may be relevant to determine whether the
Resolutions were substantively reasonable on their merits, those obligations do not
assist this Court in determining the initial overarching question of whether the Board
had the jurisdiction to pass the Resolutions. Specifically, given that I have concluded
that the Board’s implied authority can only arise under the School Act, it is not
permissible for the Board to attach to the Workers Compensation Act to create
jurisdiction under the doctrine of necessary implication. Especially given that the
Board has satisfied its Workers Compensation Act obligations through the Board’s
regulation #4304 and nothing in that regulation provides the Board with the express
authority with power to suspend trustees (and if it did, the question of how to
reconcile that with the School Act provisions would be engaged but that is an
exercise not required to resolve the Petitions).
[112] Ultimately, I have concluded, upon a consideration of the authorities and the
application of the relevant standard of review from Vavilov, that the Resolutions
represent an effort by the Board to sanction McNally and Paynter in a manner that is
unreasonably outside of its authority. In this regard, as I have addressed above,
although there is a limited implied power to sanction or censure trustees, the Board
does not have the power to suspend a trustee in a manner that amounts to a de
facto removal of a trustee from their elected office. In this regard, I rely specifically
on the various provisions in the School Act which do provide for such authority and
the acknowledgement that none of them are applicable in this factual matrix.

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 40
[113] Accordingly, I find that the suspension portion of the Regulations are ultra
vires the Board’s jurisdiction.
Analysis Reasonableness and Procedural Fairness
[114] Having regarding to my finding that Resolutions are ultra vires as the Board
did not have the jurisdiction by necessary implication to pass same, I have
concluded it is unnecessary for me to consider the alternative grounds advanced by
the petitioners, namely that the Resolutions were unreasonable or that there was a
breach by the Board of the duty of procedural fairness owed to either McNally or
Paynter.
Conclusion on the Appropriate Remedy
[115] In conclusion, on the basis of my finding, having regard to the
reasonableness standard set forth in Vavilov and the jurisprudence setting forth the
parameters upon which the doctrine of jurisdiction by necessary implication can be
relied upon, the suspension portion of the Resolutions is hereby set aside.
Summary of Substantive Orders
[116] The relief sought in paragraphs 1 and 4 of the McNally Petition and
paragraphs 1 and 4 of the Paynter Petition is hereby granted.
[117] The relief sought in paragraphs 2, 3, 5 and 7 of the McNally Petition and
paragraphs 2, 3, 5, 6 and 8 of the Paynter Petition is hereby dismissed.
Costs
[118] McNally and Paynter were both substantially successful in obtaining the relief
sought in the Petitions. The relief sought in the Petitions which was dismissed was
alternative in nature and was dismissed, as explained above, on the basis that it was
unnecessary having regard to my conclusion regarding the Board’s lack of
jurisdiction to pass the Resolutions.

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 41
[119] As such, subject to my statement below, McNally and Paynter are each
presumptively entitled to their costs of their respective Petition at Scale B on the
basis that the matter was of ordinary difficulty.
[120] In the event that the parties which to make submissions on costs based on
any formal offers to settle which may have been exchanged, counsel for the party
seeking to vary the presumptive cost order must provide written submissions,
through Supreme Court Scheduling, within 14 days of the release of these reasons
for judgment to the parties. Those submissions shall not exceed 10 pages in length.
Any responding submissions must be provided, again through Supreme Court
Scheduling, within 21 days of the release of these reasons for judgment to the
parties. The responding submissions shall also not exceed 10 pages in length.
[121] In the event that no additional submissions are received, the order shall
provide, as set out above, that McNally and Paynter are each entitled to their costs
of the Petitions at Scale B.

“Hardwick J.”

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 42

Schedule I
Interpretation Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 238
Ancillary powers
27 . . .
(2) If in an enactment power is given to a person to do or enforce the
doing of an act or thing, all the powers that are necessary to enable
the person to do or enforce the doing of the act or thing are also
deemed to be given.

Judicial Review Procedure Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 241
Application for judicial review
2 (1) An application for judicial review must be brought by way of a petition
proceeding.
On an application for judicial review, the court may grant any relief
that the applicant would be entitled to in any one or more of the
proceedings for:
(2)

relief in the nature of mandamus, prohibition or certiorari;
a declaration or injunction, or both, in relation to the exercise,
refusal to exercise, or proposed or purported exercise, of a
statutory power.
Power to set aside decision
7 If an applicant is entitled to a declaration that a decision made in the
exercise of a statutory power of decision is unauthorized or otherwise
invalid, the court may set aside the decision instead of making a
declaration.

School Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 412
Employees
15 (1) A board may employ and is responsible for the management of those
persons that the board considers necessary for the conduct of its
operation.
board must formulate policies for evaluating employees who are not
covered by a collective agreement.
Subject to subsections (4) and (5), a board must not dismiss, suspend
or otherwise discipline an employee covered by a collective
agreement except for just and reasonable cause.
A board may suspend from the performance of his or her duties an
employee who is charged with an offence that the board considers
renders the employee unsuitable to perform those duties.
If the superintendent of schools is of the opinion that the welfare of the
students is threatened by the presence of an employee, the
superintendent may suspend the employee, with pay, from the
performance of his or her duties.

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 43
(6) When the superintendent suspends an employee under subsection
(5), the superintendent must immediately notify the board.
When the board is notified under subsection (6), it must as soon as
practicable confirm, vary or revoke the suspension and must, if the
board confirms and continues the suspension, determine whether the
continuation of the suspension should be with or without pay.
(7)

Composition of board
30 (1)
(2)
There is to be a board of education for each school district.
A board consists of 3, 5, 7 or 9 trustees, as determined by order of the
minister under this section.
The minister must, by order, establish the following for each school
district:
(3)
(a)
(b)
the number of trustees for the school district;
whether trustees are to be elected
(i) from the school district at large, in which case the
school district is the trustee electoral area,
from a number of trustee electoral areas specified by
the minister that are in total the entire school district, or
in another manner that is a combination of the methods
under subparagraphs (i) and (ii);

(c) if there is more than one trustee electoral area, the number of
trustees to be elected from each.

(4) The minister may, by order, vary an order under subsection (3) and
may determine the manner in which and the times at which the new
trustees under the variation order are to be appointed or elected.
If the minister reduces the number of trustees for a board, the order
reducing the number of trustees becomes effective for the following
general school election.
An order under subsection (3) or (4) must be published in the Gazette.
Unless an order under this section provides otherwise, the election of
trustees for School District No. 39 (Vancouver) must be an election
from the school district at large.
An order under this Act or a former Act that establishes the number of
trustees for a school district and the area or areas from which they are
to be elected is deemed to be an order under this section.

 

Disqualifications
33 Without limiting section 32 (1) (d), the following persons are
disqualified from being nominated for, being elected to or holding
office as a trustee:
(a) a person who is disqualified under section 34 as an employee
of a board, except as authorized under that section;

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 44

(b) a person who is disqualified under
(i) section 52 (1) [failure to make oath or affirmation of
office], or
section 52 (2) [unexcused absence from board
meetings];
(ii)
(b.1) a person who is disqualified under the Local Elections
Campaign Financing Act from holding office on a local
authority;
a person who is disqualified from holding office under (c)
(i) Division 18 [Election Offences] of Part 3 of the Local
Government Act as it applies under this Act, that Act or
any other Act, or
Division (17) of Part I of the Vancouver Charter, as it
applies under this Act, that Act or any other Act;
(ii)
(d) a person who holds office as a regional trustee of a
francophone education authority under Part 8.1.

Disqualification of board employees
34 (1) For the purposes of this section, “employee” means

an employee or salaried officer of a board, or
a person who is within a class of persons deemed by
regulation to be employees of a specified board,
but does not include a person who is within a class of persons
excepted by regulation.
Unless the requirements of this section are met, an employee of a
board is disqualified from being nominated for, being elected to or
holding office as a trustee on the same board.
Before being nominated for office as trustee, the employee must give
notice in writing to his or her employer of the employee's intention to
consent to the nomination.
Once notice is given under subsection (3), the employee is entitled to
and must take a leave of absence from the employee's position with
the employer for a period that, at a minimum,

(a) begins on the first day of the nomination period or the date on
which the notice is given, whichever is later, and
ends, as applicable, (b)
(i) if the person is not nominated before the end of the
nomination period, on the day after the end of that
period,
if the person withdraws as a candidate in the election,
on the day after the withdrawal,
(ii)

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 45
(iii) if the person is declared elected, on the day the person
resigns in accordance with subsection (7) or on the last
day for taking office before the person is disqualified
under section 52,
if the person is not declared elected and no application
for judicial recount is made, on the last day on which
an application for a judicial recount may be made, or
if the person is not declared elected and an application
for judicial recount is made, on the date when the
results of the election are determined by or following
the judicial recount.
(iv)

(v)

(5) If agreed by the employer, as a matter of employment contract or
otherwise, the leave of absence under this section may be for a period
longer than the minimum required by subsection (4).
Sections 54 and 56 of the Employment Standards Act apply to a leave
of absence under this section.
Before making the oath of office under section 50, an employee on a
leave of absence under this section who has been elected must
resign from the person's position with the employer.
At the option of the employee, a resignation under subsection (7) may
be conditional on the person's election not being declared invalid on
an application under section 153 of the Local Government Act or
section 115 of the Vancouver Charter, as those sections apply to
trustee elections.
(6)
(7)

(8)

General school election
35 (1) Elections of all trustees, to be known collectively as a general school
election, must be held in the year 2014 and in every 4th year after
that.
(2) General voting day for the general school election must be on the 3rd
Saturday of October in the year of the election.

Election offences
48 (1) For certainty, Division 18 [Election Offences] of Part 3 of the Local
Government Act and Division (17) [Election Offences] of Part I of the
Vancouver Charter apply in relation to the application of those Parts to
trustee elections.
In addition to the offences applicable as referred to in subsection (1),
a person who contravenes section 39 (5) or 166.14 (7) of this Act
commits an offence and is liable to the penalties provided in section
166 (3) of the Local Government Act.
Sections 164 [prosecution of organizations and their directors and
agents] and 165 [time limit for starting prosecution] of the Local
Government Act apply in relation to offences under this section.

General term of office
49 The term of office of a trustee elected at a general school election

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 46

(a) begins on the first Monday after November 1 following the
election or when the person takes office in accordance with
section 50 (3), whichever is later, and
ends immediately before the first Monday after November 1 in
the year of the next general school election or when at least 3
trustees elected at or appointed following that election have
taken office, whichever is later.
(b)

Trustee disqualification from holding office
52 (1) If a person appointed or elected as a trustee does not make the oath
required by section 50 within the time limit set by that section, the
office to which that person was appointed or elected is deemed to be
vacant and the person is disqualified from holding office as a trustee
until the next general school election.
If a trustee is continuously absent from board meetings for a period of
3 consecutive months, unless the absence is because of illness or
with the leave of the board, the office of the member is deemed to be
vacant and the person who held the office is disqualified from holding
office as a trustee until the next general school election.
If a person elected as a trustee is disqualified from holding office as
referred to in section 33 (c), the office to which the person was elected
is deemed to be vacant.

Questions as to trustee qualifications
54 (1) Subject to Part 5 and subsection (2), the right of a trustee to hold
office may be determined on application to the Supreme Court and,
for this purpose, section 111 [application to court for declaration of
disqualification] of the Community Charter applies.
. . .
Application to court
62 (1) Subject to subsection (3) an elector may, within 6 weeks after the fact
comes to the elector's knowledge that a trustee may have
contravened section 58, apply to the court for a determination of the
question of whether the trustee has contravened section 58.

Board is a corporation
65
(1.1) A board is responsible for the improvement of student achievement in
the school district.
A board may (2)
(a) establish committees and specify the functions and duties of
those committees,
establish a district advisory council comprised of persons
representing parents' advisory councils and other
organizations in the community, and
(b)

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 47
(c) delegate specific and general administrative and management
duties to one or more of its employees.(4) Unless expressly required to be exercised by bylaw, all powers of a
board may be exercised by bylaw or by resolution.
Improper conduct at meetings
70 . . .
(2) A majority of the trustees present at a meeting of the board may expel
a trustee from the meeting for improper conduct.
. . .
Power and capacity
85 (1) For the purposes of carrying out its powers, functions and duties
under this Act, a board has the power and capacity of a natural
person of full capacity.
. . .
(4) A rule made under subsection (2) (c) (v) must not permit volunteers to
provide services that would result in the displacement of an employee.
. . .
Administrative directives
168.03 (1) The minister may, by order, issue an administrative directive to

a board if the minister believes
(a) the board is failing or has failed to meet its obligations
under the Act, or
it is in the public interest to do so. (b)

. . .
Appointment of official trustee
172 (1) The Lieutenant Governor in Council may appoint an official trustee to
any school district to conduct the affairs of the school district if, in the
opinion of the Lieutenant Governor in Council,
(a) there has been a default in a payment on the due date of
either interest or principal of a debenture guaranteed under
this Act or a failure to comply to the satisfaction of the minister
with a condition governing the guarantee,
the board is in serious financial jeopardy,
there is substantial non-compliance with this Act or the
regulations or any rules or orders made under this Act,
[Repealed 2012-3-23.]
(b)
(c)
(c.1)

Paynter v. School District No. 61 Page 48

(d) there is substantial non-performance of the duties of the
board,
there is a risk to student achievement in the district and it is in
the public interest to do so, or
the board has failed to comply with an administrative directive
issued by the minister under section 168.03 (1).
(e)
(f)
(2) On the appointment of an official trustee to conduct the affairs of a
school district, the trustees of the school district cease to hold office.
The Lieutenant Governor in Council may remove an official trustee
and order that elections be held in the school district or may appoint
trustees to hold office in the school district until the next general local
election.
(3)

Workers Compensation Act, R.S.B.C. 2019, c. 1
General duties of employers
21 (1) Every employer must
(a) ensure the health and safety of
(i)
(ii)
all workers working for that employer, and
any other workers present at a workplace at which that
employer's work is being carried out, and
(b) comply with the OHS provisions, the regulations and any
applicable orders.

(2) Without limiting subsection (1), an employer must
(a) remedy any workplace conditions that are hazardous to the
health or safety of the employer's workers,

About Diane McNally